Download Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Vol 15 by Raymond E Kirk; Donald F Othmer; Martin Grayson; David PDF

By Raymond E Kirk; Donald F Othmer; Martin Grayson; David Eckroth; et al

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Control of batch fermentation processes can be denned as a sequence of problems. The first problem is the determination of optimal trajectories to be followed during a batch run. Given a good model, this can be cast as an open-loop optimization problem. Another approach for determining these trajectories is to extract them from historical data bases of good batches by using statistical techniques such as principal components analysis. The second problem is the low level closed-loop control of critical process variables.

The proportions of input and output materials may be fixed or variable, depending on the particular process. • Storage conditions depend on availability and capacity of appropriate storage facilities. In extreme cases, reactors themselves can be used as intermediate storage devices. The inherent advantages of batch processes, such as flexibility to produce multiple related products in the same facility and ability to handle variations in feed stocks, product specifications and market demand pattern, make them well suited for the manufacture of low-volume, high-value products.

The book presents many process monitoring and quality control tools in Chapter 6, starting with simple univariate SPC charts. Several multivariate SPM techniques for end of batch and real-time on-line monitoring are Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 12 Chapter 1. Introduction introduced and integrated with quality control. Furthermore, these tools are linked with fault diagnosis to offer an automated process monitoring and diagnosis environment in Chapter 8. 3 Process Control Automatic control of batch fermentation processes provides the opportunity to regulate the operation when variations in input conditions such as changes in impurity compositions in feedstock or disturbances during the run such as equipment malfunctions may cause departure from optimal reference trajectories.

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