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By J. P. Suchet

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Additional resources for Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials. Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications

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Let us look again at the types of interatomic bonds described earlier. If the T-X bond is purely ionic, the s and p electrons that the T atoms possessed in the neutral state have completed the octet of X. They therefore entirely fill a system of energy levels on anions, and return to cations cannot occur without additional external energy. One can obtain an idea of the energy difference E separating these two systems by referring to alkaline fluorides, where it is approximately 8-9 eV. If the T-X bond is purely covalent, it can be isolated arbitrarily from the rest of the crystal, and described like the bond between the two hydrogen atoms in the hydrogen molecule.

There is no reason, and one can easily conceive that the hop of a d electron from a divalent nickel (which thereupon becomes trivalent) to a trivalent nickel (which thereupon becomes divalent) is relatively easy. 5 shows this transfer on one level, in diagrammatical form, the transferred electron ultimately retaining the same energy difference in relation to electrons in lower shells. 44 MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS Energy of electrons Free electrons FIG. 5. Electron transfer on a d level. Case of defect NiO.

When the ions approach 35 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN SOLID MATERIALS FIG. 8. Schema of the mutual polarization of two ions, which partially leads back to the co valent electron configuration: (a) without interaction, (b) with weak interaction, (c) with overlap (based on Suchet and Bailly, 1965). each other, the resulting charges +n and — n create electricfieldswhich produce opposing forces on the partner's nucleus and electron cloud. This results in dipolar moments Ax and Δ'χ' in each ion (Fig. 86).

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