By F. Robert Hunter
Robert Hunter's Egypt lower than the Khedives, introduced again into print during this paperback variation, was once a pioneering paintings whilst first released within the Eighties, as Western students started to comb Egypt's nationwide information for an realizing of the social and financial heritage of the rustic. it's now famous as one of many primary books on nineteenth-century Egypt: it's so archivally established and empirically reliable that it kinds the starting-point for all learn. Hunter used land and pension files in Dar al-Mahfuzat, as well as released archival collections like these of Amin Sami Pasha, to magnify our realizing of the social dimensions of the politics of the interval. A secondary and intensely vital contribution of the paintings is its clarification of ways during which "collaborating bureaucrat-landowners" aided within the country's subordination to eu political and monetary dominance within the reign of Ismail. the large bankruptcy at the unraveling of khedivial absolutism is a the best option piece of storytelling, because it explores the wild fluctuations in Egypt's funds, Ismail's determined gambits to thrust back ecu administrative scrutiny, and the defection of key officers in his regime to the eu part.
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Extra info for Egypt Under the Khedives, 1805-1879: From Household Government to Modern Bureaucracy
Some of Egypt's towns and cities enjoyed special status as governorates (muhafazas), which meant that they were administered independently of the provinces by a muhafiz or governor. 13 Above the governorates and provinces stood the inspector-general, one of the most powerful officials in the land. Through the Inspectorate, he and his men coordinated the entire provincial administration and supervised all of its officials, even the provincial governors. 14 TABLE 7 THE PROVINCES OF EGYPT IN 1878 Lower Egypt al-Buhayra al-Gharbiya al-Minufiya al-Daqahliya al-Sharqiya al-Qalyubiya Upper Egypt al-Jiza Bani Suwayf al-Fayyum al-Minya and Bani Mazar Asyut Jirja Qina Isna Source: Fikri, Jughrafiyat Misr, pp.
8 Egypt was divided into twenty-four parts and these were arranged into subdistricts (khutts), districts (qisms), departments (ma'muriyas), and provinces (mudiriyas). Directing these units and replacing the Ottoman kashifs and nazirs were new types of officials sent from Cairo (table 1). This structure was superimposed upon village and other local officials, who remained in the administration. 9 Officials in the new hierarchy fulfilled two broad types of functions. In addition to their administrative role, they were assigned strictly political tasks.
What pushed the evolution of the Egyptian state structure in the direction it took? The answer to this is exceedingly complex, since it involves the actions of the viceroys and developments on the other side of the Mediterranean. To begin, the world economic and political orders were altering fundamentally the relationship between Egypt and Europe. This change was expressed, on the one hand, in a shift in the terms of trade by which Egypt became a receiver of manufactured goods and a provider of raw materials to Europe; and, on the other, in the rapid growth of European political influence and a loss of viceregal control over Europeans residing in Egypt.