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By Alan K. Bowman

Egypt After the Pharoahs treats the interval which witnessed the arriving of the Greeks and Hellenistic tradition in Egypt, the reign of the Ptolemies from Ptolemy I to Cleopatra, the conquest by way of Rome, the medical and cultural achievements of Alexandria, and the increase of Christianity. the wealthy social, cultural, and highbrow ferment of this era comes alive in Alan Bowman's narrative.

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Several references are made in PT regarding the first and second Psdt (Ennead). Utterance 219 in PT identifies the first or Great Psdt (Ennead) which includes Atum, Shu, Tefēnut, Gēb, Nūt, Isis, Seth, Nephtys, Djhuiti, Heru. For example, PT Utterance 218 identifies Seth and Djhuiti (Thoth), Auset (Isis) and Nephthys, the Westerners, the Easterners, the Southerners, the Northerners, and the Lower Sky, the second Psdt (Ennead) as imperishable spirits. Rā, master of all that exists (Nb-r-dr (Neb-er-djer) brings into existence a multitude of beings, flora, fauna, and humans by twisting his hands and by the word, thus creating the second genesis.

It goes on to read: I thus came to existence in the anterior era and a multitude of forms of existence had come to exist in this world. I made everything alone before any being (other than myself) manifested itself to existence to act with me in these places. Therefore, I made forms of existence from the force (which is in me). There I created the Nun being (still) dormant and (I), not having found a place to stand up yet. Maāt and Shu are the daughter and son of Atum, and they were together with him as attested to in Coffin Text 2 “ .

Second is the scientific element, which includes history, linguistics, and economics (methods of investigation). And third is the artistic element, which includes icons, art, motifs, and symbols (types of presentation) (p. 20). These elements are evident in the study of African cultural framework, yet they interact in a harmonious way so that all of these isolated elements may be intertwined in a single episode. g. the universe and how things are ordered and arranged in the universe. Ontology, epistemology, cosmology, and axiology are Western philosophical nomenclatures that are used to examine the African worldview.

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