By Jeffrey Rosenberg
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Extra resources for Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
E. 1). 1 corresponds to a diﬀerent molecule of which s(x) gives the displacement. 1): p(x) = P sin π 2π fx + φ + v 2 = P sin π 2π x+φ+ λ 2 . 4) The equations of this section assume that an acoustic wave is completely characterized by two parameters: the frequency f and the amplitude A. From a perceptual point of view, A is related to the loudness and f corresponds to the pitch. While two sounds with equal loudness can be distinguished based on their frequency, for a given frequency, two sounds with diﬀerent amplitude are perceived as the same sound with diﬀerent loudness.
They carry the same kind of information, but the second one is less sensitive to local ﬂuctuations. They are especially important to detect silences or to distinguish between voiced and unvoiced segments in spoken data, but they also play a role for the reduction of the bit-rate during the quantization. 3). The short-time energy E[n] of a signal can be extracted through the following convolution: 42 2 Audio Acquisition, Representation and Storage Window Length 128 msec 2 magnitude 10 0 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 frequency (Hz) 350 400 450 500 350 400 450 500 350 400 450 500 Window Length 64 msec 2 magnitude 10 0 10 −2 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 frequency (Hz) Window Length 32 msec 2 magnitude 10 0 10 −2 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 frequency (Hz) Fig.
Auditory peripheral system. The peripheral system can be divided into outer (the pinna is the ear part that can be seen on the sides of the head), middle (the channel bringing sounds toward the cochlea) and inner part (the cochlea and the hair cells). Picture by Matthias Dolder. 6 times. Incoming sounds penetrate into the cochlea through the oval window and propagate along the basilar membrane (BM), an elastic membrane that follows the spiral tube from the base (in correspondence of the oval window) to the apex (at the opposite extreme of the tube).