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Altogether they form adhesion belt-like structure. The brush border increases the surface area of the cell and helps in better absorption of the substances from the large surface area. Function Cell Junction Desmosomes Cell junction can be classified depending on localization of the junction as follows (Fig. 9): •• Cell-to-cell –– Tight junction –– Adherens junction –– Desmosomes –– Gap junction •• Cell-to-matrix –– Hemidesmosomes. These are button-like spots which connect the plasma membrane of two cells together.

30 Nuclear pore complex consists of a cytoplasmic ring, a nuclear ring, and a distal ring connected by nuclear basket (Fig. 32 Function The main function of the nuclear pore is the facilitation of the cytoplasmic to nuclear traffic and vice versa. Fig. 14 17 Chromatin •• The uncoiled chromosome of the interphase nucleus •• Composed of: –– DNA –– Histone –– Nonhistone proteins •• Types –– Inactive heterochromatin –– Active euchromatin •• Nucleosome: –– The basic unit of chromatin –– DNA encircles in two turns around a central octameric protein core containing two copies each of histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 –– Strings of nucleosomes are helically twisted and folded to form the higher order organization of chromatin nuclear lamin, and residual nucleoli.

The microtubules constitute mitotic spindles, centrioles, cilia and flagella. The basic constituents of the microtubules are alpha (α) and beta (β) tubulin. These tubulins are arranged alternatively to form a protofilament (Fig. 16). GTP is tightly bound with α tubulin and resistant to hydrolysis whereas it is loosely bound with β tubulin and can be separated by hydrolysis. The protofilament of tubulin is polar as one end is formed by β tubulin and other end is formed by α tubulin. The β end of the tubulin protofilament is plus end as the growth and shrinkage of this end is rapid.

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