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By Ethne Barnes

Publication through Barnes, Ethne

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Additional resources for Developmental defects of the axial skeleton in paleopathology

Sample text

Through my studies of human variation, I have learned to appreciate cultural and biological differences of human populations throughout the world, with an understanding of how important a role diversity plays in our lives. Without this diversity, evolutionary change, both cultural and biological, could not take place. Change is necessary. We are constantly shifting our demands on the environment, a process that has been ongoing since the dawn of humankind. As we make changes in our use of the world we live in, we change the way we are, both culturally and biologically.

Enlarged Parietal Foramina 143 3. Developmental Thinness of the Parietals 146 4. Metopism 148 B. Failure to Differentiate: Sutural Agenesis 152 C. Microcephaly 157 Summary Outline: Blastemal Desmocranium Field Defects 159 Part III. Branchial Arch I Field Defects 160 A. Field Defects of the Mandible 161 1. Developmental Delay 161 a. Cleft mandible 161 b. Hypoplasia-aplasia of the mandible 161 2. Bifid (Double-Headed) Condyles 163 3. Developmental Excess: Hyperplasia 167 a. Condylar hyperplasia 167 b.

Equally important are a thorough knowledge and understanding of the biology underlying and associated with a skeletal abnormality. Genetics and the phenotypic expression of our genetic heritage are important. Embryology and the factors that can affect the development of the embryo and fetus have obvious relevance, particularly for congenital diseases. Postnatal growth and development and the many factors, including infectious, nutritional, and metabolic variables, that can affect the developing embryo need to be understood.

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