By Ayman S., Ph.D. Mosallam
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Extra info for Design Guide for FRP Composite Connections
Figure 2-7 shows the shear stress contours for bolted graphite/epoxy joints. The preferred fiber patterns for polymer composite laminates are shown in Fig. 2-8. As shown in this figure, shear-out failure does not occur within the shaded area of laminate pattern. Outside that area, the widespread splitting accompanies shear-out, and the low load level at which it occurs discourages the installation of fasteners in such highly orthotropic laminates. Therefore, to avoid catastrophic shear-out failures, the following guidelines are recommended for optimized fiber architecture for pultruded members: 1.
Source: Hart-Smith (1989), courtesy of Dr. John Hart-Smith and the Boeing Company. 5 Effect of Lay-Up (Fiber Orientations) The laminate lay-up or fiber architecture has a great impact on the bolted composite joint strength and failure mechanisms. The most efficient lay-ups for mechanical fasteners are those that are nearly quasiisotropic, as opposed to those that are highly orthotropic. , 0-degree/90-degree/±45-degree). However, designers often strive to select highly orthotropic fiber patterns in an attempt to optimize their designs.
To minimize splintering when drilling bolt holes and to protect basic load-carrying plies, at least one pair of ±45-degree plies should be placed at the surface of each laminate. A single ply of fabric will suffice. 6 Effect of Loading Direction with Respect to a Member’s Pultrusion Axis Due to the anisotropic nature of pultruded composites, bolted joint strengths will vary with load direction. , the pultrusion direction for unidirectional pultruded composites). Practically, this coincidence is difficult to achieve.