By Tom De Jonge
Within the context of the sustainability of housing, the evaluation of interventions within the inventory is of fundamental significance. So, one of many first necessities for a choice help tooi during this box is that it will probably examine protection to demolition.IOS Press is a world technological know-how, technical and scientific writer of top quality books for teachers, scientists, and execs in all fields. many of the parts we post in: -Biomedicine -Oncology -Artificial intelligence -Databases and data structures -Maritime engineering -Nanotechnology -Geoengineering -All features of physics -E-governance -E-commerce -The wisdom economic climate -Urban experiences -Arms regulate -Understanding and responding to terrorism -Medical informatics -Computer Sciences
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So, all eco-costs in the end-oflife phase after ‘separation’ are related to the waste fraction that is not fit for upgrading or recycling. 1. All benefits from preferable treatments on the ‘Delft order of preferences’ would be designated to products or energy resulting from those treatments (Vogtländer, 2001). 7 Summary and conclusion Almost 10 years after the Brundtland report (1987), in the Dutch construction industry, the National Sustainable Building Packages have been published (1996). Based on a qualitative approach of sustainability, recommendations concerning (materials application in) construction are presented.
2. Energy consumption The calculation method to determine the eco-costs of energy is based on the assumption that fossil fuels have to be replaced by sustainable energy sources. So, the ‘eco-costs of energy’ are set as the price of renewable energy. g. in the housing sector the energy for heating and air conditioning. As an LCA provides data on both energy and its related emissions, the conversion to the related eco-costs has to be done carefully, to prevent counting energy twice. Since the eco-costs of energy have less spread in the calculations than the pollution prevention costs related to energy, ecocosts of energy should be used preferably in the conversion of LCA data to eco-costs.
Therefore, instead of using eco-costs per man-hour for calculations, applying EVR (eco-costs/labour-costs) often is much more practical. 4) (Vogtländer, 2001). An estimation of EVR for construction workers is added in this study (see Appendix 1). 5. Environmental burden of depreciation (use) of equipment, buildings etc. Also the eco-costs related to the fact that fixed assets are used to make a product, are indirect eco-costs. The calculations on the eco-costs of the use of fixed assets have the same characteristics as cost estimates for investments.