By Michael Cox, Henk Nugteren, Mária Janssen-Jurkovičová
The 1st booklet on novel items derived from the hot iteration of combustion ashes, Combustion Residues —Sustainable Applications discusses the character of ashes derived from coal co-combustion, biomass, and different fuels in conventional and stand-alone energy vegetation and municipal waste incinerators. additionally, the e-book examines the improvement of novel advertisement items incorporating such ashes, together with the significance of technical and environmental criteria, advertising suggestions, and promotion.Content:
Chapter 1 the present and destiny Nature of Combustion Ashes (pages 1–84): Alan Thompson
Chapter 2 proven makes use of of Combustion Residues (pages 85–135): Michael Anderson, Rod Jones and Michael McCarthy
Chapter three barriers of Combustion Ashes: ‘From possibility to learn’ (pages 137–198): Henk Nugteren
Chapter four Novel items and purposes with Combustion Residues (pages 199–378): Henk Nugteren, Rod Jones, Michael McCarthy, Michael Anderson, Xavier Querol, Natalia Moreno, Flavio Cioffi, Ann Sullivan, Robert Hill, Constantino Fernandez?Pereira, Luis Vilches Arenas, Richard Kruger, Mercedes Maroto?Valer and Michael Cox
Chapter five Novel items – from suggestion to industry (pages 379–417): Ian Barnes and Fritz Moedinger
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Additional info for Combustion Residues: Current, Novel and Renewable Applications
8, together with their standard deviations. The standard deviation refers to the standard deviation of the coal composition and the standard deviation of the RE factor. For the calculations, an average figure for the coal for a specific geographical region is used and the standard deviation applies to differences between the individual samples within that geographical region. 5 The Particle Size Distribution of PFA The particle size distribution of PFA was historically determined by sieving, but now many different instrumental methods are available for particle size distribution measurements, of which laser diffraction methods are currently the most widely used.
Two types of waste are produced, of which the principal pollutant is olive-mill waste water (OMWW), together with a solid known as oil mill cake (OMC), or sometimes ‘foot cake’. Foot cake contains from 3 to 6 % olive oil and from 20 to 25 % water. A more recent process separates the olive oil from the waste products either by centrifugation or decantation, and produces only OMC waste. 57 58 A Spanish company has developed a commercial waste-to-energy system burning powdered olive pits and dry pulp to generate electricity.
However, if the results are to be used to describe the behaviour in air – for example, in health and dispersion studies – the dry method is recommended, as it simulates what happens by dispersion in the air, such as coagulation. 7 The elemental composition of furnace bottom ash originating from coal of various origins (according to Meij and Te Winkel) (Reproduced by permission of KEMA). 8 The elemental composition of pulverised fuel ash originating from coal from various origins (according to Meij and Te Winkel) (Reproduced by permission of KEMA).