By Anthony J. Trewavas (auth.), Sheng Luan (eds.)
Plants can't stream clear of their environments. accordingly, all vegetation that experience survived thus far have developed subtle signaling mechanisms that permit them to understand, reply, and adapt to regularly altering environmental stipulations. one of the mobile tactics that reply to environmental alterations, elevation of calcium degrees is by way of some distance the main common messenger that fits fundamental signs to mobile responses. but it is still uncertain how calcium, an easy cation, interprets such a lot of varied indications into unique responses - how is the “specificity” of signal-response coupling encoded in the calcium changes?
This ebook will try to solution this question via describing the mobile and molecular mechanisms underlying the coding and interpreting of calcium indications in plant cells.
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Extra resources for Coding and Decoding of Calcium Signals in Plants
2004). Thus, amongst the 14 Ca2+ pumps identified in the Arabidopsis genome, ACA9 belongs to a ten-member subfamily of autoinhibited Ca2+ ATPases thought to be regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM; Baxter et al. 2003). ACA9 is principally pollen expressed and mutants in this gene Calcium, Mechanical Signaling, and Tip Growth 43 show reduced fertility through male sterility (Schiott et al. 2004). Analysis of the distribution of fertilization within siliques strongly suggests that the aca9 pollen tubes fail to elongate successfully within the carpel and so fail to fertilize ovules further into the flower (Schiott et al.
2005; Pierson et al. 1994, 1996; Lin and Yang 1997; Li et al. 1999; Yan et al. 2009). Tip-focused Ca2+ has an indirect antagonistic relationship with F-actin assembly regulated by another ROP1 effector, RIC4, and is likely to promote actin disassembly by acting on actin regulators such as profilin (Gu et al. 2005). Recent evidence suggests that Ca2+ is involved in the negative feedback regulation of ROP1, though the mechanism by which Ca2+ participates in this negative feedback regulation remains to be elucidated (Yan et al.
In contrast, suppression of tip-localized Ca2+ by RIC4 involves F-actin assembly acting on a Ca2+ signaling pathway (Gu et al. 2005). Tip F-actin regulated by RIC4 has a role in exocytosis process by promoting the accumulation of exocytic vesicles to the tip region. By using an exocytic vesicle marker YFP-RabA4d, Lee et al. showed that apical F-actin is required for tip accumulation of YFP-RabA4d to the apical clear zone marked by an inverted cone shape localization, which represents exocytic vesicles.