By Hiroo Tominaga, Masakazu Tamaki
Chemical response and Reactor layout starts with a dialogue of chemical reactions, emphasizing chemical equilibrium and cost of response and proceeds to the speculation and perform of warmth and mass move, and significant issues within the layout of chemical reactors. the ultimate component to the e-book offers specified case experiences from the chemical protecting the six chemical strategies: naphtha cracking, steam reforming, epoxy resin construction, hydro-treating, fluid catalytic cracking and flue gasoline desulfurization.
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Additional resources for Chemical Reaction and Reactor Design
The problem with higher reaction temperatures is the increase in byproducts such as polychlorides. This example is consistent with the conclusion of thermodynamics that 'a reversible process is most efficient'. A reversible process is a process developed at equilibrium throughout the process. As known by the Le Chatelier-Braun law, in an exothermic reaction, the equilibrium constant decreases with temperature, leading to a lowered equilibrium conversion. In the above case, however, the equilibrium conversion at about 130 oc is still about 100%.
For example, in the petrochemical industry, basic materials such as ethylene and propylene are synthesized by cracking naphtha at a temperature as high as 800 °C. Also, a catalyst is often used. Catalysts do not change before or after a reaction, and neither give energy to raw molecules, but reduce the value of the activation energy. Since the activation energy is fed as heat, catalytic reactions are a kind of thermal reaction. The list of examples of catalytic reactions is endless: hydrogenation of the unsaturated hydrocarbons using palladium as a catalyst; synthesis of polymers from olefins using the Ziegler-Natta catalyst; and production of gasoline by zeolite.
The kinetic theory of gases defines the diffusion flux of the component A in the gas phase as relative motion of the component to the centre of mass of the mixture. To simplify the discussions, we assume one-dimensional motion of each component with v; [m/s]. The mass average velocity of the system, V [m/s], or the baricentric velocity is given by: FUNDAMENTALS OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER 41 . Dry Air .. .. Jl .. >. 8) K. 10) is obtained from the definition of diffusion fluxes, but no similar relation is known for multicomponent systems.