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By J. J. Moore

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G. for the generalised reaction: aA + bB ^ cC a c p = + ( C C P C + dD pJ dC ( a C - PA + W b For more accurate values of AHT it is necessary to calculate ACp using Cp values for reactants and products at the required temperature deduced from the type of empirical equation illustrated by equation ( 2 . 4 ) such that: ACp 2 = Aa + AbT + AcT~ + .. e. ΑΗΤί = ΑΗΤι + f /J ACAC pdT+L f+ pdT+lf+ Jf ACpaT Tt where Tf and L{ are the melting point and latent heat of fusion of the product respectively. Latent heat of transformation and melting and boiling points must also be considered in the above equation if the reactants or products go through a phase transformation.

1 N m ( = 760 mmHg) -2 = 1 Pa) Metallurgical Thermodynamics 35 Further examples include: AAf^çe ( Reaction 2Al(s) + | O a( g ) — > A l 3 0 3 ( s ) Ca(s) + \02(g) k Jm o1 ') -1700 — CaO(s) -637 Zn(s) + i O, (g) — > ZnO(s) -354 Hg(l) + | O j ( g ) — • HgO(s) -91 2Ag(s) + | O a (g) — A g 3 0(s) -29 H,(g) + i - 0 2 ( g ) — - Η , Ο Ο ) -288 C(s) + | 0 2 ( g ) — > C O ( g ) -112 | N 2( g ) + | O a( g ) — > NO(g) +90 All of the oxides formed are termed 'exothermic compounds' except for N O which is an 'endothermic compound'.

E. H or enthalpy. e. S or entropy, often referred to as the degree of disorder. g. e. G or free energy. Each of these energies must be considered when assessing a reaction and each will be explained and examined in this chapter. 1 Thermochemistry Thermochemistry is the study of heat energies, H, in a reaction and as such provides important information regarding heat balances and fuel requirements in a metallurgical process. The unit of heat energy is the joule or kilojoule (J or kJ). g. * Every known chemical reaction involves an energy change; most reactions occur with an evolution of heat and are called exothermic reactions, a few reactions (which will normally only take place at high temperatures) absorb heat and are called endothermic reactions.

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