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By J. H. Crouwel

This research offers proof for shipping by means of wheeled automobile in Italy earlier than the Roman Imperial interval, the start of that's frequently regarded as marked via Augustus's conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. 3 different types of wheeled motor vehicle documented for the interval are studied: the chariot, two-wheeled carts and four-wheeled wagons. quite a lot of facts is drawn upon together with figured files reminiscent of architectural terracottas, stone reliefs, vase- and wall work; bronze and terracotta types and the is still of exact cars, in a number of instances followed by way of their harness groups recovered from tombs, basically from valuable and northerly Italy of the 8th and 7th centuries BC onwards. the amount is lavishly illustrated with over one hundred seventy plates and figures.

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2 (also Woytowitsch 1978, no. 219B and pl. 6, B II 7 and pl. 2 (also Richter 1968, no. 720; Woytowitsch 1978, no. 216 and pl. 45), B II 8 and pl. 2, B II 12, B II 13 and pl. 2, B II 14 and pl. 3 (also Richter 1968, no. 716; Woytowitsch 1978, no. 217 and pl. 45), B II 15 (also Richter 1968, no. 721), B IV 2 and pl. 4 (also Richter 1968, no. 719; Woytowitsch 1978, no. 215 and pl. 45), and probably B III 1 and pl. 4). See also Woytowitsch 1978, no. 219A and pl. 45. o. Haynes 1965b, 16f. and fig. ; Woytowitsch 1978, no.

12 Decoration of bronze sheathing of one side of the body of the Monteleone chariot (see p. 13, note 34): see Woytowitsch 1978, no. 231 and pls 8 and 14; Antichità dall’Umbria a New York ills pp. 111–12; Brendel 1995, 149 and fig. 99; Carri da guerra pls 12, 17. Decorated sheet bronze fragments from the Tomba dei Bronzi at Castel San Mariano (see p. 14, note 35): see Petersen 1894, 308 no. 53: a–b, fig. 14; Woytowitsch 1978, no. 74 with pl. 8; Höckmann 1982, 36–8 and figs 19–20, pl. 15: 7. Also the incompletely preserved vehicle among the sheet-bronze decoration of another actual chariot from the same tomb; see Hampe and Simon 1964, pl.

Emiliozzi on chariot), 183–90 (M. Bonamici on chariot decoration) with figs 1–6 and pls 12–17; Art of the Classical World no. 323; Eisenberg 2007 (arguing – unconvincingly – that the chariot is a pastiche); C Vogel, ‘A more precise restoration of your chariot awaits’, in The New York Times of March 29, 2007. 30 14 chariots slot in the rear cross-timber. The axle was placed beneath the pole, fitting in the rectangular slots in the side timbers of the floor frame and, presumably, in a corresponding slot in the pole.

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