Download Liquid crystals by S Chandrasekhar PDF

By S Chandrasekhar

This new and vastly revised variation of Professor Chandrasekhar's vintage e-book Liquid Crystals (1977) provides a scientific and self-contained therapy of the physics of the different sorts of thermotropic liquid crystals--the 3 classical kinds, nematic, cholosteric and smectic, composed of rod-shaped molecules, and the newly stumbled on discotic kind composed of disc-shaped molecules. The assurance features a description of the constructions of those 4 major varieties and their polymorphic transformations, their thermodynamical, optical and mechanical houses and their habit below exterior fields. the elemental ideas underlying the main functions of liquid crystals in reveal know-how (for instance, the twisted and super-twisted nematic units, the skin stabilized ferroelectric machine, etc.) and in thermography also are mentioned

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Download Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 6, Biology and by Joseph Needham PDF

By Joseph Needham

This moment a part of the 6th quantity of Joseph Needham's nice company is the 1st to be written by means of a collaborator. Francesca Bray, operating heavily with Dr Needham, has produced the main entire research of chinese language agriculture to be released within the West. From a tremendous mass of resource fabric, usually complicated and imprecise, and from first-hand learn in China, she brings order and illumination to a very important zone of chinese language technological improvement. the most physique of the ebook is an account of the technological background of agriculture, with significant sections dedicated to box structures, implements and strategies (sowing, harvesting, storing) and crop structures (what has grown and the place and the way plants rotated). The concluding part contrasts Europe's Agricultural Revolution with agrarian swap in North China within the Han and with the 'Green Revolution' in South China within the Sung. within the theoretical research which concludes this part we discover an important contribution to the elucidation of the most query posed via Dr Needham's paintings: why did the clinical Revolution which remodeled the area happen in Europe and never in China?

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Download Inference, Method and Decision: Towards a Bayesian by R.D. Rosenkrantz PDF

By R.D. Rosenkrantz

This publication grew out of formerly released papers of mine composed over a interval of years; they've been remodeled (sometimes past acceptance) for you to shape a fairly coherent entire. half One treats of informative inference. I argue (Chapter 2) that the normal precept of induction in its clearest formula (that legislation are proven via their optimistic instances) is obviously fake. different formulations when it comes to the 'uniformity of nature' or the 'resemblance of the long run to the earlier' appear to me hopelessly doubtful. From a Bayesian perspective, 'learning from event' is going through conditionalization (Bayes' rule). the conventional stum­ bling block for Bayesians has been to fmd target chance inputs to conditionalize upon. Subjective Bayesians let any likelihood inputs that don't violate the standard axioms of chance. Many subjectivists supply that this liberality turns out prodigal yet personal themselves not able to consider extra constraints that may plausibly be imposed. to ensure, if lets agree at the right probabilistic illustration of 'ignorance' (or absence of pertinent data), then all possibilities acquired by means of utilising Bayes' rule to an 'informationless' earlier will be aim. yet known contra­ dictions, just like the Bertrand paradox, are inspiration to vitiate all makes an attempt to objectify 'ignorance'. BuUding at the prior paintings of Sir Harold Jeffreys, E. T. Jaynes, and the more moderen paintings ofG. E. P. field and G. E. Tiao, i've got elected to chunk this bullet. In bankruptcy three, I increase and safeguard an objectivist Bayesian approach.

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Download Visible Empire: Botanical Expeditions and Visual Culture in by Daniela Bleichmar PDF

By Daniela Bleichmar

Between 1777 and 1816, botanical expeditions crisscrossed the huge Spanish empire in an bold venture to survey the plants of a lot of the Americas, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. whereas those voyages produced written texts and compiled collections of specimens, they devoted an overpowering percentage in their assets and effort to the construction of visible fabrics. eu and American naturalists and artists collaborated to fabricate a stunning overall of greater than 12,000 botanical illustrations. but those photos have remained mostly overlooked—until now.

In this lavishly illustrated quantity, Daniela Bleichmar offers this archive its due, discovering in those botanical photographs a window into the worlds of Enlightenment technology, visible tradition, and empire. via cutting edge interdisciplinary scholarship that bridges the histories of technological know-how, visible tradition, and the Hispanic global, Bleichmar makes use of those pictures to track similar histories: the little-known background of medical expeditions within the Hispanic Enlightenment and the heritage of visible proof in either technological know-how and management within the early sleek Spanish empire. As Bleichmar indicates, within the Spanish empire visible epistemology operated not just in clinical contexts but additionally as a part of an imperial gear that had a common culture of deploying visible facts for administrative purposes.

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Download Descartes’ Treatise on Man and its Reception by Delphine Antoine-Mahut, Stephen Gaukroger PDF

By Delphine Antoine-Mahut, Stephen Gaukroger

This edited quantity gains 20 essays written by way of top students that offer an in depth exam of L’Homme via René Descartes. It explores the best way this paintings built topics not only on questions equivalent to the flow of the blood, but in addition on primary questions of conception and our wisdom of the realm.

Coverage first bargains a serious dialogue at the diversified models of L'Homme, together with the Latin, French, and English translations and the 1664 versions. subsequent, the authors research the early reception of the paintings, from the relationship of L'Homme to early-modern Dutch Cartesianism to Nicolas Steno's feedback of the paintings and the way Descartes' clock analogy is used to guard diversified conceptions of the articulation among anatomical observations and practical hypotheses.

The e-book then is going directly to discover L'Homme and early-modern anthropology in addition to the how the paintings has been understood and included into the works of scientists, physicians, and philosophers during the last a hundred and fifty years.

total, readers will realize how the fad during the last few a long time to appreciate human cognition in neuro-physiological phrases will be obvious to be now not anything unheard of, yet quite a revival of a fashion of facing those basic questions that was once pioneered through Descartes.

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Download Scientific Babel: How Science Was Done Before and After by Michael D. Gordin PDF

By Michael D. Gordin

English is the language of technology at the present time. regardless of which languages you recognize, if you would like your paintings visible, studied, and mentioned, you must post in English. yet that hasn’t regularly been the case. although there has been a time while Latin ruled the sphere, for hundreds of years technology has been a polyglot firm, performed in a few languages whose significance waxed and waned over time—until the increase of English within the 20th century.
 
So how did we get from there to the following? How did French, German, Latin, Russian, or even Esperanto cave in to English? And what will we reconstruct of the event of doing technological know-how within the polyglot prior? With Scientific Babel, Michael D. Gordin resurrects that misplaced international, partly via an creative mechanism: the pages of his hugely readable narrative account teem with footnotes—not delivering history details, yet featuring quoted fabric in its unique language. the result's wonderful: as we examine the increase and fall of languages, pushed through politics, struggle, economics, and associations, we really see it occur within the ever-changing net of multilingual examples. The historical past of technological know-how, and of English as its dominant language, involves existence, and brings with it a brand new realizing not just of the frictions generated via a systematic group that spoke in lots of usually jointly unintelligible voices, but additionally of the chances of the polyglot, and the losses that the dominance of English entails.
 
Few historians of technology write in addition to Gordin, and Scientific Babel finds his remarkable command of the literature, language, and highbrow essence of technology earlier and current. No reader who takes this linguistic trip with him might be disappointed.

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Download Philosophy of Language and the Challenge to Scientific by Christopher Norris PDF

By Christopher Norris

During this booklet Christopher Norris develops the case for medical realism by way of tackling a variety of adversary arguments from a variety of anti-realist positions. via a detailed serious studying he indicates how they fail to make sufficient feel on any rational, constant and scientifically proficient survey of the facts. alongside the way in which he contains a variety of targeted case-studies from the heritage and philosophy of technological know-how. additionally integrated are the delicate models of verificationism built via thinkers resembling Michael Dummett and Bas van Fraassen. vital to Norris's argument is a chronic engagement with the as soon as hugely influential yet these days missed paintings of Norwood Russell Hanson.

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