By Peter Grunwald
Content material: 1. fundamentals in carbohydrate chemistry / Heinrich Hühnerfuss -- 2. Glycoconjugates : a short evaluate / Peter Grunwald -- three. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in attractiveness strategies / Thisbe ok. Lindhorst -- four. Glycoside hydrolases / Motomitsu Kitaoka -- five. Disaccharide phosphorylases : mechanistic range and alertness within the glycosciences / Christiane Luley-Goedl and Bernd Nidetzky -- 6. Enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of nucleotide sugars : novel enzymes, novel substrates, novel items, and novel routes / Leonie Engels and Lothar Elling -- 7. Iteratively appearing glycosyltransferases / Marta Luzhetska and Andreas Bechthold -- eight. Bacterial glycosyltransferases considering molecular mimicry of mammalian glycans / Warren Wakarchuk -- nine. Sulfotransferases and sulfatases : sulfate amendment of carbohydrates / Eli Chapman and Sarah R. Hanson -- 10. Glycosylation in wellbeing and fitness and sickness / Peter Grunwald -- eleven. Sialic acid derivatives, analogues, and mimetics as organic probes and inhibitors of sialic acid spotting proteins / Joe Tiralongo and Thomas Haselhorst -- 12. Enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism and catabolism for chemoenzymatic syntheses of complicated oligosaccharides / Julian Thimm and Joachim Thiem -- thirteen. From gene to product : tailored oligosaccharides and polysaccharides via enzyme and substrate engineering / Jürgen Seibel -- 14. Synthesis and amendment of carbohydrates through metabolic pathway engineering in microorganisms / Xian-wei Liu ... [et al.] -- 15. Metabolic pathway engineering for hyaluronic acid construction / Esteban Marcellin, Wendy Y. Chen, and Lars ok. Nielsen -- sixteen. Microbial rhamnolipids / Markus M. Müller ... [et al.] -- 17. Chitin-converting enzymes / Karin Moss ... [et al.] -- 18. Linear and cyclic oligosaccharides / Hajime Taniguchi -- 19. Fungal degradation of plant oligo- and polysaccharides / Ronald P. de Vries ... [et al.] -- 20. Bacterial suggestions for plant telephone degradation and their genomic details / Yutaka Tamaru and Roy H. Doi -- 21. layout of effective multienzymatic reactions for cellulosic biomass processing / Anne S. Meyer
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Furthermore, zeolite-catalyzed glycosylation of long-chain alcohols, using the inexpensive and readily available peracetylated β-d-gluco- and galactopyranoses as glycosyl donors under solvent-free conditions, has been explored (Aich and Loganathan, 2007). Among the various forms (H-, Na-, Fe- and Zn) of β zeolite examined as catalysts in the reaction of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-acetyl-β-d-galactopyranose with cetyl alcohol, Fe-β zeolite gave the maximum yield of 63% of cetyl 2,3,4,6-tetraO-acetyl-β-d-galactopyranoside and cetyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-α-dgalactopyranoside with a good stereoselectivity.
This means that d-galactose is a C4 epimer of d-glucose. In general, diastereomers that differ in configuration at only one asymmetric carbon are denominated epimers. 8 In sucrose a α-d-glucose and a β-d-fructose subunit are hooked together by a glycosidic bond between the C1 carbon of glucose and the anomeric C2 carbon of fructose. 11 12 Basics in Carbohydrate Chemistry The most common disaccharide is sucrose, generally known as “table sugar”. Each year about 90 million tons are produced from sugar beets and sugarcane worldwide.
5 Formation of O-Glycosides and N-Glycosides The reaction depicted in Fig. 21 can also be considered as a formation of methyl-O-tetramethyl-b-d-glucoside, or in general terms a possibility for the “formation of glycosides”. In the particular case of a carbohydrate the acetal is denominated a glycoside, and the bond between the anomeric carbon and the alkoxy oxygen is called a glycosidic bond. Names of the respective glycosides are formed by replacing the “e” ending of the carbohydrate’s name with “ide”.