By Dmitry Murzin, Olga Simakova (eds.)
Biomass-derived sugars supply a wealthy, renewable feedstock for a various diversity of chemical compounds, making them a promising and possible resource for the sustainable manufacture of numerous necessary items. Exploring eco-friendly sugar-based applied sciences past their functions in fuels, this e-book presents an outline of sugar-based applied sciences, describing their demanding situations and possibilities. It covers variations of sugars into eco-friendly chemical compounds in prescribed drugs, biodegradable polymers and surfactants. a different bankruptcy is devoted to the conversion of biomass into sugars, that is an important step within the sustainable usage of sugars. The booklet is a necessary source for chemists and chemical engineers operating to increase greener artificial routes to chemical substances and prescription drugs
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Extra resources for Biomass Sugars for Non-Fuel Applications
When cellulose is used as a substrate, due to its insolubility in most of the solvents, the reaction system becomes heterogeneous with respect to the substrate itself. This eventually aﬀects the reaction rate of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of solid acid catalysts. 2), pre-treatment of cellulose reduces its crystallinity and helps in solubilizing part of it in hot water. 117 Subsequently, this treated cellulose is hydrolysed over several zeolites such as HMOR (Si/ Al ¼ 10), Hb (Si/Al ¼ 12, 75) and HZSM-5 (Si/Al ¼ 45) at 150 1C.
Although higher yields are observed with the HUSY catalyst, further characterization of the spent catalyst showed that it undergoes structural changes and hence loses its activity over time. 173 Two solid acid catalysts viz. Smopex-101 (fibrous, non-porous catalyst; sulfonic acid functionalized polyethene-graft-polystyrene) and Amberlyst-15 (macroporous resin; sulfonic acid functionalized styrene-divinyl benzene) were used by the authors for the hydrolysis of arabinogalactan. It was seen that Smopex-101 (86% yield for arabinose) gave better activity than Amberlyst-15 (50% yield for arabinose) at 90 1C.
They also have lower operating costs and avoid any corrosion of reactors as after removal of the catalyst from the solution by simple filtration, the solution becomes neutral. However, they have the drawback of diﬀusion limitations and thus can slow down the reaction compared to their homogeneous counterparts. Moreover, solid acids can easily be poisoned by water (by forming a solvation layer around acid sites by hydrogen bonding) or they degrade during the hydrothermal treatment involved under biomass conversion conditions and consequently, it becomes absolutely critical to design and develop solid acids that can tolerate water poisoning and are hydrothermally stable.