By edited by J.S. Bhatti ... [et al.].
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Extra info for Biodiesel Handbook The
Properties of various esters are listed in the tables in Appendix A. Table 1 of this chapter contains a list of C1–C4 alcohols and their relevant properties. Information on vegetable oils and animal fats used as starting materials in the transesterification reaction as well as on resulting individual esters and esters of oils and fats appears in Appendix A. In addition to vegetable oils and animal fats, other materials such as used frying oils can also be suitable for biodiesel production; however, changes in the reaction procedure frequently have to be made due to the presence of water or free fatty acids (FFA) in the materials.
92: 145–148 (1990). 28. , and D. Zhu, Kinetics of Transesterification of Soybean Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74: 1457–1463 (1997). 29. K. Konar, V. Mao, and H. Sidi, Fast One-Phase Oil-Rich Processes for the Preparation of Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters, Biomass Bioenergy 11: 43–50 (1996). 30. K. Konar, V. Mao, C. Lee, and S. Buligan, Fast Formation of HighPurity Methyl Esters from Vegetable Oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75: 1167–1172 (1998). 31. , R. Stloukal, J. Machek, and F. Skopal, Biodiesel from Rapeseed Oil, Methanol and KOH 3.
However, high temperatures and large excesses of methanol are required. 1(Biodiesel)(26-41)(Final) 6/6/05 3:39 PM Page 33 reproducing the reaction kinetics results of other researchers was noted (49) and was attributed to catalytic effects at the surfaces of the reaction vessels; it was also noted that these effects would be exacerbated at higher temperatures. Not including the effect of surface reactions could cause difficulties when scaling up reactors due to the decrease in the ratio of reactor surface area to volume.