By Robert W. Schrier
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Morson and Dawson’s Gastrointestinal Pathology5th EditionEdited by means of Neil A. Shepherd, DM, FRCPath, Gloucestershire mobile Pathology Laboratory, Cheltenham, united kingdom; Bryan F. Warren, MB, ChB, FRCP (London), FRCPath, John Radcliffe health facility, Oxford, united kingdom; Geraint T. Williams, OBE, BSc, MD, MRCR, FRCP (London), FRCPath, FMedSci, Cardiff college, Cardiff, united kingdom; Joel ok.
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Unifying Hypothesis of Renal Sodium Excretion Myocardial dysfunction – ↓ Extracellular fluid volume – AV fistula – Cardiac output × High output failure – Cirrhosis Pregnancy – Systemic vascular resistance – = Mean arterial pressure + Sodium excretion (pressure natriuresis) FIGURE 2-25 Summary of mechanisms of sodium (Na) retention in volume contraction and in depletion of the “effective” arterial volume. In secondary Na retention, Na retention results primarily from a reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP).
11. Lapointe J-Y, Bell PD, Cardinal J: Direct evidence for apical Na+:2Cl:K+ cotransport in macula densa cells. Am J Physiol 1990, 258:F1466–F1469. 23. Brenner BM, Ballermann BJ, Gunning ME, Zeidel ML: Diverse biological actions of atrial natriuretic peptide. Physiol Rev 1990, 70:665–700. Disorders of Sodium Balance 24. Kishimoto I, Dubois SK, Garbers DL: The heart communicates with the kidney exclusively through the guanylyl cyclase-A receptor: Acute handling of sodium and water in response to volume expansion.
27. Geibel J, Giebisch G, Boron WF: Angiotensin II stimulates both Na+H+ exchange and Na+/HCO-3 cotransport in the rabbit proximal tubule. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990, 87:7917–7920. 28. : Peterson DR: Activation of proximal tubular Na+-H+ exchanger by angiotensin II. Am J Physiol 1992, 263:F135–F143. 29. Bertorello A, Aperia A: Regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in kidney proximal tubules: involvement of GTP binding proteins. Am J Physiol 1989, 256:F57–F62. 30. Aperia AC: Regulation of sodium transport.