By Carl G. Hempel
G TRADE-PAPERBACK. HEAVY UNDERLINING AND different MARKINGS p101-117; LITTLE IF ANY in different places.
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38 This condition is suggested by the preceding consideration, but of course not proved by it. 1) is unconditionally satisfied. An analogous remark applies to the subsequently proposed further standards of adequacy. Second, an observation report which confirms certain hypotheses would invariably be qualified as confirming any consequence of those hypotheses. Indeed: any such consequence is but an assertion of all or part of the combined content of the original hypotheses and has therefore to be regarded as confirmed by any evidence which confirms all of the latter.
Studies in the Logic of Confirmation [3 9 ] adequate in the sense of being a reasonable approximation to the intended meaning of confirmation. A brief discussion of certain special cases of confirmation might serve to shed further light on this latter aspect of our analysis. 10. 1), it confirms H. This is in good agreement with the customary conception of con firming evidence; in fact, we have here an extreme case of confirmation, the case where B conclusively confirms H; this case is realized if, and only if, B entails H.
45 In other words, from the information contained in B we can infer that the hypothesis H does hold true within the finite class of those objects which are mentioned in B. Let us apply the same consideration to a hypothesis of a logically more complex structure. e. ‘For every (person) x, there exists at least one (not necessarily different person) y such that x likes y . ) Suppose now that we are given an observation report B in which the names of two persons, say V and / ’, occur. Under what conditions shall we say that B confirms H?