By Stuart J. Russell, Peter Norvig
A hugely available, up to date specialist reference for programmers, software program engineers, procedure directors, or technical managers, this ebook integrates state of the art AI recommendations into clever agent designs utilizing examples and workouts to steer the reader from uncomplicated reactive brokers to complete knowledge-based brokers with average language services.
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Extra info for Artificial Intelligence: Modern Approach
FRAMES Others, following Minsky's idea of frames (1975), adopted a rather more structured approach, collecting together facts about particular object and event types, and arranging the types into a large taxonomic hierarchy analogous to a biological taxonomy. 24 Chapter 1. Introduction AI becomes an industry (1980-1988) The first successful commercial expert system, Rl, began operation at Digital Equipment Corporation (McDermott, 1982). The program helped configure orders for new computer systems, and by 1986, it was saving the company an estimated $40 million a year.
And so on. This kind of analysis—classifying things in terms of the functions they serve and oscillating among ends, functions required, and means that perform them—forms the basic system of heuristic of GPS. Means-ends analysis is useful, but does not say what to do when several actions will achieve the goal, or when no action will completely achieve it. Arnauld, a follower of Descartes, correctly described a quantitative formula for deciding what action to take in cases like this (see Chapter 16).
In this approach, AI is viewed as the study and construction of rational agents. In the "laws of thought" approach to AI, the whole emphasis was on correct inferences. Making correct inferences is sometimes part of being a rational agent, because one way to act rationally is to reason logically to the conclusion that a given action will achieve one's goals, and then to act on that conclusion. On the other hand, correct inference is not all of rationality, because there are often situations where there is no provably correct thing to do, yet something must still be done.