By S. O. Warnaar (auth.), Dirk J. Ruiter, Gert Jan Fleuren, Sven O. Warnaar (eds.)
The improvement of monoclonal antibodies to human tumor linked antigens has enormously facilitated the applying of immunohistochemical suggestions to investigate surgically got rid of tissues. over the last few years this process has been used by a steadily expanding variety of investigators to research malignant cells. even though monoclonal antibodies to tumor linked antigens haven't develop into but regimen reagents in immunopathology, they've got supplied new details that may now not be acquired with traditional antisera or histochemical approaches. the subsequent are consultant examples. TUmor linked antigens were pointed out which reveal a limited distribution in basic tissues and for this reason could characterize necessary markers for radio imaging and applicable ambitions for immunotherapy. despite undetec desk variations with traditional histopathological methods hetero geneity has been present in the antigenic profile of tumor cells inside a lesion, in autologous lesions faraway from diversified anatomic websites from a given sufferer and in lesions faraway from assorted sufferers. Phenotypes of tumor cells were pointed out which correlate with the biology of tumor cells and with the medical process the disorder. From a pragmatic view aspect using monoclonal antibodies in immunopathology has improved interactions among pathologists and immunologists, as exemplified by means of the current booklet. Such interactions have contributed to the appliance of uncomplicated study to scientific difficulties. The bankruptcy of this e-book talk about investigations played with monoclonal antibodies to antigens expressed via quite a few sorts of general and malignant human cells.
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Extra info for Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in Tumor Pathology
MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO ONCOFETAL ANTIGENS. M. NAP 1. INTRODUCTION Oncofetal antigens can be defined as antlgens that are expressed during intrauterine life, diminish strongly or disappear after birth and reappear in situatlons of repair or neoplastic growth In those organs where they appeared during gestation in the tetus (1). It should be emphasized that in this situation a normal fetal antigen lS reexpressed not only in neoplastic cells of the adult, but also In cells lnvolved in regeneratlve processes.
Other enzymes that have been tested for enzyme-immuno-cytochemical purposes are glucose oxidase (24) and~galactosidase (25). For reasons of lower efficiency and higher cost these labels are not recommendable for routine use. Overall, peroxidase remains the best with AP as a good second choice. A fairly recent development is the use of colloidal gold labels for light microscopical immunocytochemistry which was first described by Faulk and Taylor in 1971 (26). The simplicity of the procedures for the preparation of colloidal gold and for the labeling of proteins (27), the high sensitivity and the resolution of the method, and the possibility to perform double labeling studies by using gold particles of different sizes (28) have rapidly given gold labels a leading position in immunoelectronmicroscopy.
It is not possible to use simultaneous two- or multi-step procedures because the secondary antibodies generally do not distinguish between the two primary MoAb's. If the antigens however are expected to be localized on the same structure, it is recommendable to use simultaneous methods in order to give both antibodies a fair chance to occupy their antigenic sites. For this reason only pairs of MoAb's should be used, which have been linked directly to different groups: enzymes, haptens or biotin.