By Tharwat F. Tadros
Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important function in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate frequent program in own care, cosmetics, prescribed drugs, agrochemicals and the nutrients undefined. Their class, actual homes, part habit, their results and functions are coated during this booklet.
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References             Th. F. ), Surfactants, Academic Press, London, 1984. K. Holmberg, B. Jonsson, B. Kronberg and B. , Chichester, UK, 2003. , New Jersey, published annually. N. M. van Os, J. R. Haak and L. A. M. , Amsterdam, 1993. M. R. Porter, Handbook of Surfactants, Chapman and Hall, Blackie, USA, 1994. W. M. ), Anionic Surfactants, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1967. E. H. Lucasssen-Reynders, Anionic Surfactants – Physical Chemistry of Surfactant Action, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981.
The latter molecule is used to prepare a series of graft copolymers by random grafting of alkyl chains (using alky isocyanate) onto the inulin backbone. The first molecule of this series is INUTEC® SP1 (Beneo-Remy, Belgium) that is obtained by random grafting of C12 alkyl chains. It has an average molecular weight of ∼ 5000 Daltons and its structure is given in Fig. 5. The molecule is schematically illustrated below which shows the hydrophilic polyfructose chain (backbone) and the randomly attached alky chains.
4. Micellization occurs over a narrow concentration range as a result of the high association number of surfactant micelles. 5. The interior of the surfactant micelle has essentially the properties of a liquid hydrocarbon. g. dyes and agrochemicals. To a first approximation, micelles can, over a wide concentration range above the cmc, be viewed as microscopic liquid hydrocarbon droplets covered with polar head groups, which interact strongly with water molecules. e. 5030 nm. As we will see later, the driving force for micelle formation is the elimination of contact between the alkyl chains and water.