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Children and adolescents are encouraged to engage in moderate or vigorous physical activity at least 60 min each day and to perform vigorous-intensity physical activity no fewer than 3 days/wk. Additionally, maintaining a healthy body weight is important for reducing cancer risk (Thomson and Thompson 2008). S. Department of Health and Human Services 2008). Musculoskeletal Diseases and Disorders Diseases and disorders of the musculoskeletal system, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, bone fractures, connective tissue tears, and low back syndrome, are also related to physical inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle.

Wait at least 30 sec and repeat the measurement. Use the average of the two measurements for each of the three values. 2 Sources of Measurement Error Sources of error in measuring BP are numerous (Reeves 1995). You need to be aware of the following sources of error and do as much as possible to control them: •• Inaccurate sphygmomanometer •• Improper cuff width or length •• Cuff not centered, too loose, or over clothing •• Arm unsupported or elbow lower than heart level •• Poor auditory acuity of technician •• Improper rate of inflation or deflation of the cuff pressure •• Improper stethoscope placement or pressure •• Expectation bias and inexperience of the technician •• Slow reaction time of the technician •• Parallax error in reading the manometer •• Background noise •• Client holding treadmill handrails or cycle ergometer handlebars The following section addresses questions about measuring BP and provides tips for taking more accurate BP measurements during rest or exercise.

3–6 METs or 40–60% VO2R) 0b 0 +c Vigorous exercise . ” b 0 indicates that item is not necessary; however, it should not be viewed as inappropriate. c + indicates that item is recommended. d For physician supervision—This suggests that a physician be in close proximity and readily available should there be an emergent need. Testing Procedures for Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Electrocardiogram One of your major responsibilities as an exercise scientist is to become proficient at measuring BP, heart rate, and ECGs during rest and exercise.

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