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By Christian Fleck

From the start of the 20 th century, medical and social clinical learn has been characterised through highbrow alternate among Europe and the U.S.. The institution of the 3rd Reich ensured that, from the German conversing international, a minimum of, this turned a one-way site visitors. during this e-book Christian Fleck explores the discovery of empirical social examine, which by way of 1950 had develop into the binding norm of foreign scholarship, and he analyses the contribution of German refugee social scientists to its institution. the most important names are right here, from Adorno and Horkheimer to Hirshman and Lazarsfeld, yet on the center of the publication is a different collective biography in line with unique facts from greater than 800 German-speaking social scientists. released in German in 2008 to nice acclaim, Fleck's vital learn of the transatlantic enrichment of the social sciences is now on hand in a revised English-language version.

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Additional info for A Transatlantic History of the Social Sciences: Robber Barons, the Third Reich and the Invention of Empirical Social Research

Example text

The fact that decisions were no longer made by the founders or their advisors but were delegated to the representatives of the profession that was to benefit was explicitly acknowledged when the foundations started to collaborate with organized groups of scholars. A committee that had been established during the First World War as an advisory body to the government evolved to become the National Research Council (NRC) which, due to its energetic protagonists, soon gained acceptance with their scientific colleagues and, what is more, could convince the foundations to carry on with their activities after the end of the war.

But early deaths were few, and academics seeking urban exodus rare. This account is at odds with the self-image cultivated by Teutonic academics throughout the twentieth century and, thus, calls for a more detailed argumentation. There is no doubt that students often turn to more than one university in the course of their studies. This fact of student mobility seems to have given rise to the collective view that German-speaking academics showed an intense regional mobility. It was supported by pieces of popular wisdom pretending, for instance, that one had to accept whatever first position one was offered, regardless of where one might intend to end up.

The achievements of the Vienna School of Medicine, the Berlin physicists and the Göttingen mathematicians, on the one hand, were not realized within this structural pattern but under conditions that were an anticipation of later developments, and were an exception in Teutonic science. The memorable achievements of German-language sociology, on the other hand, were realized under conditions one hesitates to describe as being conducive to creativity since they were, for a large part, due to the work of private scholars such as Georg Simmel, Robert Michels, Wilhelm Jerusalem, Gustav Ratzenhofer, Karl Renner, Edgar Zilsel and Alfred Schütz, or of ‘also-sociologists’ (academics with a strong, or primary, involvement in other disciplines) such as Hans Kelsen, Joseph Schumpeter or Emil Lederer, whose sociological achievements, at any rate, were not produced in an institutional environment that was favourable to sociology.

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