By Iftekhar A Karimi, Rajagopalan Srinivasan
Vol. 1. half A -- v. 2. half B
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Extra resources for 11th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering
Fuel Switching Different carbonaceous fuels have different heats of combustion depending on their composition. The lower heating value heat of combustion (product water remains as a vapor) per carbon atom can readily be estimated from the average "oxidation state" of carbon in the fuel which is turn can be estimated from the molecular formula and considering the constituents in the fuel that will be converted to a mass of water upon combustion. With this scheme, it is readily seen that the heat of combustion per carbon atom of natural gas is about twice that of coal, and that of most liquid hydrocarbon fuels lies about half way in between.
The order size cannot be changed once it is placed. Demand shaping, as considered in this paper, can address two main types of the supplydemand imbalance: 1) deterministic imbalance, and 2) stochastic imbalance. A deterministic imbalance is known in advance of the lead time for most components, but the supply constraints do not allow to fully satisfy the demand. This kind of imbalance typically occurs after an introduction of a new product or during a long-term component shortage and it may be mitigated deterministically in advance.
Customer Choice Model In addition to the product-level demand patterns that can be derived from sales data collected at customer touch points, demand shaping requires a detailed model of customer decision-making that can be used to predict the success rate of various shaping actions. We model customers’ product choices using a discrete-choice framework that casts the likelihood of all possible purchase decisions within a parametric form. Our framework incorporates product attributes, customer characteristics, and additional market signals that may effect customer decisions.